Our hypothesis was that by isolating bacteria species JL and species SA from our sample auger dish, both isolated bacteria will produce an antibiotic that will inhibit the growth of the target bacteria, bacillus subtilis. Our prediction was that the purple bacteria will have a larger zone of inhibition compared to the white; however both will produce and antibiotic that will inhibit and kill the target bacteria. The data collected from this experiment was not consistent with our prediction because neither the purple bacteria nor the white bacteria produced a zone of inhibition. Our hypothesis was not supported by our data because the bacteria that was isolated did not produce antibodies that inhibited the growth of the target bacteria, bacillus subtilis. A logical explanation for why the isolated bacterium JL and SA did not inhibit the growth of the bacillus subtilis is that the target bacteria has developed immunity to the plug bacteria’s antibodies. A second explanation could be that the plugs do not produce antibodies at all. A third explanation could be the antibodies do not work against that specific target bacteria. Due to the possible explanations above, our hypothesis should not be entirely rejected because it could have been proven under different circumstances. If the target bacteria was a different type of bacteria instead of bacillus subtilis, the isolated bacterium JL and SA could have produced a zone of inhibition on that different type of bacteria and inhibited its growth. A logical modification of this experiment to address the issue that the antibodies do not work against bacillus subtilis would be to use a different target bacteria in the experiment to see if JL and SA produces antibodies that would effectively inhibit the growth of that different type of bacteria. In conclusion, through this experiment we learned that bacterium JL and SA do not produce antibodies to inhibit the growth of bacillus subtilis.
After week one while we let the potential antibiotic-producing bacteria grow in augers 2 and 3, the characteristics of the strains of bacteria became more relevant. JL had a deeper purple color and grew in a widespread filamentous colony. SA grew in a circular colony, typically small white dots scattered across the auger.
After creating plates 4 and 5 and allowing change to happen the results of the zone of inhibitions occurred. These results are shown in the boxes below.
Our results from the experimental plate concluded that neither species SA or JL created a zone of inhibition with the target bacteria, bacillus subtilis. It was also noted that the plugs we placed into plate 4 did not grow, neither did the target bacteria. There was no change in the colonies on the plug, however it is noted that that target bacteria grew but neither interfered with each other.
It is shown that the antibiotic Tetracycline created the largest zone of inhibition to the target bacteria although Gentamicin did create one too, Tetracycline did a better job of inhibiting the target bacteria. Penicillin unfortunately did not inhibit the target bacteria at all.
Plate 6 helps interpret plate 5 because plate 6 showed us an example of a zone of inhibition and how antibodies from a bacteria inhibit growth of other bacteria. We then could compare our results from plate 5 to plate 6 to see how whether or not JL and SA did what the Penicillin, Tetracycline, or Gentamicin did in inhibiting bacteria growth or not.
FOMO is defined as the fear of missing out. This is something I struggle with frequently. And being in college has only made this condition worse for me. When it comes down to deciding whether to go out with my friends or stay in and take a break from going out, going out always wins. Why? Because of FOMO. When making those decisions, I always think “What if something fun happens and I miss it and just have to hear about it from my friends?” “What if they have the best time of their lives and I’m not there to share it with them?” and the classic, “You’re only a freshman once and we only have ___ weeks left!”
FOMO doesn’t only affect me because of what the questions I create in my head, but because of my friends trying to convince me to go out with them. I hate saying no to people and the pressure that it creates on me makes me unable to say no. So FOMO always wins. But I don’t mind it because I am only a freshman once and I need to enjoy every minute of it and take advantage of it. At least I know when I look back on my freshman year I will not say, “I wish I had more fun.” Thanks to FOMO, I’m always having fun and no regrets to follow.
There are two main types of nutrients that are essential for plant life: macronutrients and micronutrients. Macronutrients are nutrients needed in large quantities for plant growth. Micronutrients are nutrients needed in small quantities. Plants need these nutrients, in addition to sunlight, CO2, O2, and water, to grow, develop, and reproduce. In this experiment plant growth and development is affected by 6 macronutrients and micronutrients, iron and trace elements as shown in table 4. The first macronutrient is Potassium (K) which enhances the process of stomata regulation. The exchange of gas is a key process throughout photosynthesis. Potassium does not make up macromolecules and has several deficiency symptoms that include wilting leaves and a weak stem in plants. The second macronutrient is Calcium (Ca) which is a vital component of the cell wall that is mainly used for the protection of the plant. Calcium makes no macromolecules and its deficiency symptoms include the browning of leaves. The third macro nutrient is magnesium (Mg) which remains in the chlorophyll that essentially helps with photosynthesis. It makes no macromolecules and has deficiency symptoms of less and the yellowing of leaves. The next macronutrient is Sulfur(S) which is important in the process of making macromolecules such as proteins and amino acids. Without amino acids and proteins, it would be impossible to make branches and green leaves. Instead, without Sulfur, plants would develop small branches and chlorosis. Up next is Nitrogen (N) another macronutrient which is important in the processes of ATP (energy), Chlorophyll (photosynthesis), Amino Acids (component of protein structure) and Nucleotides (DNA and cell structuring). The macromolecules Nitrogen’s make up is DNA and Protein. Nitrogen has several deficiency symptoms which consist of stunted growth or a delay and color changes. The sixth and last micronutrient is Phosphorous (P) which is important in the process of nucleotides and phospholipids. DNA is the macromolecule in its makeup, and its deficiency symptoms are poor growth and dark or brown spots on the leaves. Yes, macronutrients are important however, without micronutrients, the development of plants would be nearly impossible. Iron (Fe) is a micro nutrient vital in the process of photosynthesis, it creates no macromolecules, but without iron, yellow or brown leaves will develop which means the photosynthesis process will be hindered. The last but not the least micronutrient are trace elements which isn’t a main focus in our lab however; If trace are eliminated from the equation then the plant will die.
Antibiotics are chemicals that act to kill or inhibit living organisms (book). Microbes in the soil produce anitbiotics to compete for resources for survival (class). These soil microbe bacteria are commonly known as actinomycetes. Actinomycetes are typically off white, rod shaped and filamentous. The antibiotics these Actinomycetes produce kill or inhibit living organisms and work by mainly targeting gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria are weaker and only have one thick cell wall, and therefore have a low selectivity. On the other hand, bacteria that have a cell wall covered by an extra membrane are protected from antibiotics. Protected bacteria are gram negative and have a higher selectivity.
Selectivity is very important in regards to antibiotics and treatment of illness because only certain antibiotics kill specific types of bacterium. For example, as said before, gram negative bacteria had a higher selectivity, and therefore one type could not inhibit it but another type of antibiotic erythromycin can effectively kill both gram positive and negative bacteria
In this experiment we have isolated two types of mystery bacteria on separate dishes. After a week of allowing the bacteria to grow, we will introduce the two bacteria. Our hypothesis suggests that the purple stand of bacteria will kill the white strand. If a zone of inhibition forms around the site where the purple bacteria is formed, the hypothesis that the purple bacteria produces antibiotics against the other strand will be supported.